I know that pilots deploy flaps for takeoff and then retract them once they have enough speed. My question is, why are flaps so crucial to takeoff? I want the explanation physics wise and how deploying flaps helps airplanes climb.
A good example of a crash is Northwest Airlines Flight 255. After takeoff, the plane rolled to the left and stalled. Everyone on board, except for one little girl, were killed. The crash was the effect of the pilots not extending the flaps before takeoff.
How are flaps so crucial to takeoff?
Haven’t seen any other topics that answer my question.