I know the basic difference between VFR (visual flight runs) and IFR (instrument flight rule), but can anyone explain the complexities of these a little more in depth?
This is a great post that explains it very much in depth:
The main thing is VFR (Visual Flight Rules) is flown with coordination to the outside world using landmarks. IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) is flown using your instruments without any coordination to the outside world.
VFR - see and dont hit things (like what @Fourthnebula919 said, you are looking for landmarks, streets, highways and such).
IFR - dont see things and fly (until you land). Everything is a programmed. and just about ALL commercial flights are IFR. your occasional charter, or random small airline may do VFR stuff
In terms of the ATC world is VFR considered tower/ground controller and IFR approach/departure?? Or they both fall under the same (IFR)
The pilot decides that. ATC will base their service based off of what the pilot tells them.
Air Traffic Control will always facilitate you in your phases of flight regardless of what flight rules you’re under. It really depends on what exactly you’re doing. If you’re flying VFR, ATC will expect you to see and avoid and will actively give out traffic positions of other aircraft near you. In an IFR flight plan, ATC is the one directing you away from traffic and is monitoring all traffic in their airspace and are actively giving you nav fixes for you to fly on based on your flight plan.
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