v1, rotate

Hi everyone, just a bit confused about what V1, rotate, v2 mean? Also 20, 10, retard.


  • V1 is the speed where you can no longer abort the takeoff.

  • Rotate is when you begin the rotation of the aircraft into the air.

  • V2 is the speed where you can safely continue flying on one engine.

  • I’m not sure what you mean by 10/20, but that could be your height above the ground on final, I guess.

  • Retard is cutting the throttle at an altitude of ~30 feet for a smooth landing.


Quoted from here.

V1 : the “point of no return” speed - once you reach this speed, you can no longer abort take off but must take off, even if there’s an emergency.
V2 : the speed at which you will be able to safely gain altitude even if you lose 1 engine - a typical climbing speed is V2+15.
VR : the speed at which you should gently but firmly pull back on the yoke to lift off the runway.

These are simple altitude readouts when coming in for landing. The 20 and 10 is the altitude in feet from touch down and the “retard” is when you have to flare the nose up a bit before actually touching down.

Someone correct me if im wrong.

Oh and heres a speadsheet which epaga first created that houses all the v1,v2 and vr speeds for each aircraft.


Yea that is the height above ground

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Hi, look at this video here to help you. and also, please refer to this page here to help. here is a spreadsheet as well. This should help (I hope)

This will help understand the radioaltimeter more, also retard is when you should put your thrust to idle, keep in mind that this is only on Airbus aircraft. Here is the link to the Video.

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Typically you can also retract the gear at V2 (but only if you have a safe rate of climb).

No, #support is for technical problems with app. This should stay in #general

I think retard is when you “retard” the throttle, essentially pulling it back to a low idle

Not 100% I’m right though



You are correct. I have been in Airbus simulators and that happens every time that I don’t bring back the throttle.

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I understand V1, VR, and V2, but I wonder how to calculate the speeds with the weight of the plane and length of runway. Is there a formula anyone uses?

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Check out In-Flight Assistant on iOS or Android. This app developed by @epaga automatically calculates your V-speeds based on your weight & flaps settings!


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