MaxSez: This is a compelation of many regulation. Pls note inaccuracies by comment. i suggest you file a copy in your flight bag:
As in all aspects of life there are rules and regulations that affect flying. Some rules are just good common sense practices while others are habits based on training/tech education acquired through specific training or practice. All of these rules exist because safety of flight is the most important consideration of all.
There are some basic flying common sense rules in which all pilots and air traffic controllers are trained. Some are given below:
Spend 70% of pilot time scanning the skies using a series of short, regularly spaced eye movements in 10° sections alternately looking both near and far, horizontally and vertically.
If there is no apparent motion between the aircraft you are piloting and another aircraft, then both are probably on a collision course.
Be aware of your aircraft’s blind spots.
Before beginning a manoeuvre, make clearing turns while carefully scanning the area for other aircraft.
When faced with an aircraft approaching head-on, both aircraft are required to alter the course to the right.
When overtaking another aircraft flying in the same direction and on the same course, the aircraft being overtaken has the right-of-way, therefore pass well clear of it on the right.
When two aircraft are converging or approaching from the side, the aircraft to the left must give way to the aircraft on the right.
A general right-of-way rule states that the least manoeuvrable aircraft has the right-of-way.
Over congested areas (city or metropolitan area), aircraft are required to fly 1,000 feet above any obstruction (tall building, for example) within a horizontal radius of 2,000 feet of that aircraft.
Over uncongested areas (rural land, not open water), aircraft are required to fly at least 500 feet above the surface.
For most small aircraft flying outside controlled airspace in good weather, the pilots are responsible for maintaining a safe distance from other aircraft. This is the “see and be seen” principle otherwise known as VFR or Visual Flight Rules. In this mode of operation, a pilot must keep a continual watch for other aircraft in the sky. When flying above 3,000 feet above ground level (AGL), the pilot must follow cruising altitudes/headings as given below (east/west cruising altitudes):
Flying a magnetic course of 0° - 179°, fly at odd thousands plus 500 feet. For example, 3,500; 5,500; 7,500.
Flying a magnetic course of 180° - 359°, fly at even thousands plus 500 feet. For example, 4,500; 6,500; 8,500.
( Suggest: Flying Commercial Craft use the AIRWAYS. Vector via an Intersection to your Destination Aerodrome, same separation rules apply)
For jetliners flying inside controlled airspace, pilots are still responsible for maintaining a safe distance from other aircraft. They also must strictly follow IFR or Instrument Flight Rules. In this mode of operation, pilots are flying under reduced visibility and must depend on ATC and their instruments for additional guidance and information. Though rules of separation vary depending on the airspace in which an aircraft is flying, in general, when under positive ATC control the responsibly for separation and terrain clearance rests with the Controller, by rule, a horizontal distance of 5 nautical miles between 2 aircraft flying at the same altitude is required. (The PF retains Command and may deviate from directions in Safety of Flight Conditions as encountered). For altitudes at and below 29,000 feet, vertical separation must be maintained at a minimum 1,000 feet. For altitudes above 29,000 feet vertical separation must be maintained at a minimum of 2,000 feet. (FAR/AIM/ICAO/Various)
Your Comment, add on’s, omissions, corrections or observation/experience is encouraged for inclusion by comment. Thanks
(Note: See the recent Topic “Rule of Thumb” for a great memory aid for your flying kit.)