When aircrafts are flying above huge ocean area such as the Pacific Ocean, how do they communicate to the nearest atc? Or do they fly with the flight plan without atc?
before aircraft fly over and ocean with no radar contact, they contact an ATC controller and they will tell them the correct heading altitude and speed that the plane should fly to avoid colliding with other aircraft.
depends where it is. Crossing from USA - Europe they contact Gander International then follow a route. Heres a video on it
No radar coverage doesn’t mean no atc. It’s just reporting points.
btw apparently NAT is not even used by everyone cuz they don’t make sense all the time (for instance a flight going to EGLL might not take the tracks if they are go too far south)
Usual communication over continents is done with VHF. This system works with direct line. That means if for example there is a mountain in between communication will start breaking. When you are in the middle of the ocean there is no communication possibility with VHF. In this case aircraft use HF communication. HF communication can travel longer distances by bouncing in the atmosphere and the ground. On newer aircraft satcom (satellite communication) is used with no voice communication.
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