The Bombardier CSeries or C Series is a family of narrow-body, twin-engine, medium-range jet airliners originally designed by Canadian manufacturer Bombardier Aerospace.
Bombardier, BD-500 CSeries CS300, C-FFDK - SIAE 2015 (18887460245).jpg
CSeries CS300 prototype with the gear almost retracted
Role Narrow-body jet airliner
National origin Canada
Airbus (from H2 2018)
Designer Bombardier Aerospace
First flight 16 September 2013
Introduction 15 July 2016 with Swiss Global Air Lines
Status In production
Primary users Swiss Global Air Lines
Number built 19 as of 30 September 2017
Program cost US$ 5.4 billion as of February 2015
CS100: US$ 76.5 million
CS300: US$ 85.7 million
The 108 to 133-seat CS100 (officially BD-500-1A10) made its maiden flight on 16 September 2013, was awarded an initial type certification by Transport Canada on 18 December 2015 and entered service on 15 July 2016 with Swiss Global Air Lines. The 130 to 160-seat CS300 (officially BD-500-1A11) first flew on 27 February 2015, received an initial type certification on 11 July 2016, and entered service with launch customer airBaltic on 14 December 2016. Service entry saw 21% lower fuel burn for the CS300 replacing B737-300s with a dependability above 99.3%, and 25% lower costs than the RJ100 for the CS100, while the passengers’ and pilots’ feedback is positive for the cabin and flight controls.
In October 2017, Airbus and Bombardier announced a partnership on the CSeries program, with Airbus acquiring a 50.01% majority stake for no outlay, with Bombardier keeping 31% and Investissement Québec (fr) 19%, with a second assembly line to open in Mobile, Alabama. When the deal closes in the second half of 2018, Airbus will assist in marketing and servicing.
When Fokker, which produced the Fokker 100 100-seat short-haul aircraft, was in difficulty, discussions began with Bombardier on 5 February 1996. After evaluating Fokker’s opportunities and challenges, Bombardier announced an end to the acquisition process on 27 February. On 15 March, Fokker was declared bankrupt.
On 8 September 1998, Bombardier launched the BRJ-X, or “Bombardier Regional Jet eXpansion”, a larger regional jet than the Canadair Regional Jet due to enter service in 2003. Instead of 2–2 seating, the BRJ-X was to have a wider fuselage with 2–3 seating for 85 to 110 passengers, and underwing engine pods. It was abutting the smallest narrow-body jetliners, like the 2–3 DC-9/MD-80/Boeing 717 or the 3–3 A318 and 737-500/737-600. At the end of 2000, the project was shelved by Bombardier in favour of stretching the CRJ700 into the CRJ900.
Meanwhile, Embraer launched its four-abreast, under-wing powered E-jets for 70 to 122 passengers at the Paris Air Show in June 1999, which made its maiden flight in February 2002 and was introduced in 2004. Airbus launched its 107-117 passengers A318 shrink on 21 April 1999, which made its first flight in January 2002, as Boeing had the 737NG-600 first delivered in September 1998.
Feasibility study Edit
CSeries 2-3 seating
Bombardier appointed Gary Scott on 8 March 2004 to evaluate the creation of a New Commercial Aircraft Program. Bombardier launched a feasibility study for a five-seat abreast CSeries at Farnborough Airshow in July 2004 to replace aging DC-9/MD-80, Fokker 100, Boeing 737 Classic and BAe-146 with 20% lower operating costs, and 15% lower than aircraft produced at the time. The smaller version should carry 110 to 115 passengers and the larger 130 to 135 passengers over 3,200 nautical miles.
Bombardier’s Board of Directors authorized marketing the aircraft on 15 March 2005, seeking firm commitments from potential customers, suppliers and government partners prior to program launch. The C110 was planned to weigh 133,200 lb (60,420 kg) at MTOW and have a length of 114.7 ft (35 m), while the C130 should be 125.3 ft (38.2 m) long and have a 146,000 lb (66,226 kg) MTOW. It would have 3-by-2 standard seating and 4-abreast business class, 7 ft (2.1 m) stand-up headroom, fly-by-wire and side stick controls. 20 percent of the aircraft weight would be in composite materials for the center and rear fuselages, tail cone, empennage and wings. First flight was planned for 2008 and entry into service in 2010.
In May 2005, the CSeries development was evaluated at US$2.1 billion, shared with suppliers and partner governments for one-third each. The Government of Canada would invest US$262.5 million, the Government of Quebec US$87.5 million and the Government of the United Kingdom US$340 million (£180 million), repayable on a royalty basis per aircraft. The UK contribution is part of an investment partnership for the location of the development of the wings, engine nacelles and composite empennage structures at the Belfast plant, where Bombardier bought Short Brothers in 1989.
The CSeries’ cross section was designed to give enhanced seating comfort for passengers, with features like broader seats and armrests for the middle passenger and larger windows at every seat to give every passenger the physical and psychological advantages of ample natural light.
On 31 January 2006, Bombardier announced that market conditions could not justify the launch of the program, and that the company would reorient CSeries project efforts, team and resources to regional jet and turboprop aircraft. A small team of employees were kept to develop the CSeries business plan, and would include other risk-sharing partners in the program.